Xylazina 20 Richmond.
Ready-to-use Sterile Injectable Solution
Xylazine Hydrochloride 2.0 g; Excipients qsf 100.00 mL.
Xylazine is a powerful sedative and non-narcotic analgesic, as well as a muscle relaxant. The sedative and analgesic activity is related to a depression of the central nervous system. The muscle relaxant effect is based on the inhibition of intraneural transmission of impulses in the central nervous system; the main effects develop within 10 to 15 minutes after intramuscular injection and within 3 to 5 minutes after intravenous administration.
A sleep-like state, the depth of which depends on the dose, is maintained for 1 to 2 hours, while the analgesia lasts for 15 to 30 minutes, post-application.
After IM injection, the drug is rapidly absorbed, but bioavailability varies according to species: in the horse it is 40-48%, in the sheep between 17 and 73%, and in the dog 52- 90%.
In the horse, the action manifests itself 1 -2 minutes after administration of IV, with a maximum effect between 3-10 minutes after injection.
The duration of effect is dose-dependent but can last approximately 1.5 hours. The half-life after a single dose of xylazine is approximately 50 minutes in the horse and recovery takes approximately 2 – 3 hours.
In dogs and cats the action manifests itself 10 – 15 minutes after IM or SC administration and 3 – 5 minutes after administration IV.
The analgesic effect may persist 15 – 30 minutes, but the sedative effect for 1-2 hours depending on the dose. The serum half-life in dogs is 30 minutes. Full recovery from administration may take 2-4 hours.
Indications for use
Xylazina Richmond is a powerful non-narcotic sedative and analgesic, which produces a short period of analgesia as well as muscle relaxation.
Its use is ideal in:
- Management and control of acute visceral pain.
- Orthopedic procedures.
- Semiological examination in mouth, ears, abdominal, rectal or vaginal palpation.
- Catheterization and x-rays.
- Short term minor surgical procedures, such as suture of lacerations or debridement.
- It can be used as a pre-anesthetic agent, thus reducing the necessary doses of anaesthetic agents.
- Used in conjunction with local anesthetics.
Xilazina 20 Richmond, may be administered subcutaneously (depending on the species) intramuscularly or intravenously.
Dosage Xylazine Hydrochloride 20 mg/mL
Species Endovenous Intramuscular
Horses 0.5-1.1 mg/kg 2.5-5.5 mL/100 kg 1-2 mg/kg 5-10 mL/100 kg
Cattle* 0.03-0.1 mg/kg 0.15-0.5 mL/100 kg 0.1-0.2 mg/kg 0.5-1 mL/100 kg
Sheep* 0.05-0.1 mg/kg 0.12-0.25 mL/50 kg 0.1-0.3 mg/kg 0.25-0.75 mL/50 kg
Goat* 0.01-0.5 mg/kg 0.02-1.25 mL/50 kg 0.05-0.5 mg/kg 0.12-1.25 mL/50 kg
Pig ———– ———- 2-3 mg/kg 5-7.5 mL/50 kg
Dog ■ 0.5-1 mg/kg 0.25-0.5 mL/10 kg 1-2 mg/kg 0.5-1 mL/10 kg
Cat 0.5-1 mg/kg 0.12-0.25 mL/5 kg 1-2 mg/kg 0.25-0.5 mL/5 kg
Birds ——— ————- 5-10 mg/kg 1.25-2.5 mL/5 kg
* Lower doses should be used if sedation without prostration is desired.
Can also be applied in SC form.
■ For dogs over 23 kg, an IM dose of 1.1 mg/kg is recommended to produce sedation and analgesia.
To achieve a sedative and analgesic effect in colic, give 0.3 to 0.5 mg/kg IV, repeat if necessary.
Xylazine (1.1 mg/kg IV) followed in 2-3 minutes by ketamine (1.65 – 2.2 mg/kg IV) provides surgical anaesthesia for 12 -15 minutes.
Administration of xylazine (1.1 mg/kg) 2.5 minutes before induction of thiopental anaesthesia (4.4 mg/kg), results in complete immobilization in 1 – 2 minutes and provides effective analgesia for 15 – 20 minutes. Inhalation anaesthetics will be administered if necessary to maintain anaesthesia.
For dental examinations, a dose of 0.055 mg/kg IV is recommended, since higher doses cause over-sedation with head fall, making the procedure more difficult.
A dose of xylacin of 0.09 – 0.35 mg/kg IM produces a light to deep sedation. Intravenous xylazine at 0.05 – 0.1 mg/kg, causes basal narcosis for 1 -2 hours.
Likewise, IM doses of 0.05 mg/kg allow to work with the animal in foot achieving a slight muscular relaxation and sedation. At doses higher than 0.1 mg/kg the animal normally falls in decubitus and at 0.2 mg/kg a deep sedation is induced and an optimal level of analgesia.
Because xylazine induces a marked degree of salivation in ruminants, atropine premedication is recommended.
In dogs and cats:
Xylazine significantly decreases (26 – 71%) the amount of sodium pentobarbital needed to induce general anesthesia.
It is also used in combination with ketamine hydrochloride. The combination in which xylazine (0.55 – 1.1 mg/kg) is used IM as a pre-anesthetic followed 20 minutes later by an IM injection of ketamine (15 – 22 mg/kg), provides analgesia and relaxation in about 30 minutes. For surgical procedures lasting less than one hour, 2.2 mg/kg of xylazine is recommended in cats and after 10 minutes, 11 mg/kg of ketamine is administered.
Contraindications and Limitations of Use
- In most cats and occasionally in the dog, emesis occurs within 3 – 5 minutes of xylazine administration.
- Avoid the intra-arterial route.
- Do not administer in animals receiving epinephrine or having ventricular arrhythmias.
- Use with caution in animals with pre-existing cardiac dysfunction, hypotension or shock, respiratory dysfunction, severe renal or hepatic failure.
- Do not administer in very debilitated animals.
- In dogs bradycardia, heart block and acute arterial hypotension can occur, as well as apparent tympanism by aerophagy, (especially in Basset Hound, Great Dane and Irish Setter)
- Do not administer in ruminants that are dehydrated or with obstruction of the urinary tract, since in this species the drug causes a marked polyuria.
- The analgesia produced by xylazine alone is insufficient to perform an endotracheal intubation before the administration of an inhalation anaesthetic.
- Because it can cause premature delivery, do not use in the last trimester of pregnancy.
- The use of xylazine is not recommended in therapeutics in conjunction with neuroleptics or tranquilizers. In ruminants it can cause salivation, ruminal atony, tympanism and regurgitation, hypothermia, diarrhea and bradycardia.
- Animals should be handled carefully after administration of the drug. A false sense of security may cause an accident to personnel as the animals may respond with kicks or other reactions in a defensive manner.
- The patient should be monitored and kept in a warm, dark place, protected from noise and environmental disturbances, during recovery.
- It is suggested to premedicate with atropine before the use of xylazine.
- The doses and warnings suggested in all cases are to be considered by the acting veterinarian.
- Verify that the inviolability system of the product and its storage conditions prior to use are adequate.
- Xylazine is considered to be an agent with a wide therapeutic margin. When administered in large doses and quickly can occur respiratory depression, arrhythmias, tremors and hypotension. In these cases, assisted mechanical ventilation is preferable to analeptic ventilation.
- Yohimbine Vet Richmond has an antagonistic effect, and is used as an antidote in cases of overdose.
- Do not use the meat from the animals for human consumption or industrialization until at least 5 days after the last treatment.
- Do not use for human consumption or industrialization, milk from animals until at least 72 hours after the last treatment.
- Keep the product between 15 and 30 °C, away from light and in a dry and hygienic place.
- Do not swallow.
- Keep out of reach of children and pets.
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Grand Bourg, Buenos Aires, Argentina.