Ready-to-use Sterile Injectable Solution
Every 100 mL contains:
Xylazine Hydrochloride 10.0 g; Excipients qs.
Xylazine is a powerful sedative and non-narcotic analgesic, as well as a muscle relaxant. The sedative and analgesic activity is related to a depression of the central nervous system. The muscle relaxant effect is based on the inhibition of intraneural transmission of impulses in the central nervous system; the main effects develop within 10 to 15 minutes after intramuscular injection and within 3 to 5 minutes after intravenous administration.
A sleep-like state, the depth of which depends on the dose, is maintained for 1 to 2 hours, while the analgesia lasts for 15 to 30 minutes, post-application.
After IM injection, the drug is rapidly absorbed, but bioavailability varies according to species: in the horse it is 40-48%, in the sheep between 17 and 73%, and in the dog 52- 90%.
In the horse, the action manifests itself 1 -2 minutes after administration of IV, with a maximum effect between 3-10 minutes after injection.
The duration of effect is dose-dependent but can last approximately 1.5 hours. The half-life after a single dose of xylazine is approximately 50 minutes in the horse and recovery takes approximately 2 – 3 hours.
In dogs and cats the action manifests itself 10 – 15 minutes after IM or SC administration and 3 – 5 minutes after administration IV.
The analgesic effect may persist 15 – 30 minutes, but the sedative effect for 1-2 hours depending on the dose. The serum half-life in dogs is 30 minutes. Full recovery from administration may take 2-4 hours.
Indications for use
Xylazina Richmond is a powerful non-narcotic sedative and analgesic, which produces a short period of analgesia as well as muscle relaxation.
Its use is ideal in:
Management and control of acute visceral pain.
Semiological examination in mouth, ears, abdominal, rectal or vaginal palpation.
Catheterization and x-rays.
Short term minor surgical procedures, such as suture of lacerations or debridement.
It can be used as a pre-anesthetic agent, thus reducing the necessary doses of anaesthetic agents.
Used in conjunction with local anesthetics.
Xilazina 20 Richmond, may be administered subcutaneously (depending on the species) intramuscularly or intravenously.
Dosage Xylazine Hydrochloride 100 mg/mL
Species Endovenous Intramuscular
Horses 0.5-1.1 mg/kg 0.5-1.1 mL/100 kg 1-2 mg/kg 1-2 mL/100 kg
Cattle* 0.03-0.1 mg/kg 0.03-0.1 mL/100 kg 0.1-0.2 mg/kg 0.1-0.2 mL/100 kg
Sheep* 0.05-0.1 mg/kg 0.005-0.01 mL/50 kg 0.1-0.3 mg/kg 0.01-0.03 mL/10 kg
Goat* 0.01-0.5 mg/kg 0.001-0.05 mL/50 kg 0.05-0.5 mg/kg 0.005-0.05 mL/10 kg
Pig ———– ———- 2-3 mg/kg 0.2-0.3 mL/10 kg
Dog ■0.5-1 mg/kg 0.05-0.1 mL/10 kg 1-2 mg/kg 0.1-0.2 mL/10 kg
Cat ■ 0.5-1 mg/kg 0.025-0.05 mL/5 kg 1-2 mg/kg 0.05-0.1 mL/5 kg
Birds ——— ————- 5-10 mg/kg 0.05-0.1 mL/1 kg
* Lower doses should be used if sedation without prostration is desired.
Can also be applied in SC form.
■ For dogs over 23 kg, an IM dose of 1.1 mg/kg is recommended to produce sedation and analgesia.
To achieve a sedative and analgesic effect in colic, give 0.3 to 0.5 mg/kg IV, repeat if necessary.
Xylazine (1.1 mg/kg IV) followed in 2-3 minutes by ketamine (1.65 – 2.2 mg/kg IV) provides surgical anaesthesia for 12 -15 minutes.
Administration of xylazine (1.1 mg/kg) 2.5 minutes before induction of thiopental anaesthesia (4.4 mg/kg), results in complete immobilization in 1 – 2 minutes and provides effective analgesia for 15 – 20 minutes. Inhalation anaesthetics will be administered if necessary to maintain anaesthesia.
For dental examinations, a dose of 0.055 mg/kg IV is recommended, since higher doses cause over-sedation with head fall, making the procedure more difficult.
A dose of xylacin of 0.09 – 0.35 mg/kg IM produces a light to deep sedation. Intravenous xylazine at 0.05 – 0.1 mg/kg, causes basal narcosis for 1 -2 hours.
Likewise, IM doses of 0.05 mg/kg allow to work with the animal in foot achieving a slight muscular relaxation and sedation. At doses higher than 0.1 mg/kg the animal normally falls in decubitus and at 0.2 mg/kg a deep sedation is induced and an optimal level of analgesia.
Because xylazine induces a marked degree of salivation in ruminants, atropine premedication is recommended.
In dogs and cats:
Xylazine significantly decreases (26 – 71%) the amount of sodium pentobarbital needed to induce general anesthesia.
It is also used in combination with ketamine hydrochloride. The combination in which xylazine (0.55 – 1.1 mg/kg) is used IM as a pre-anesthetic followed 20 minutes later by an IM injection of ketamine (15 – 22 mg/kg), provides analgesia and relaxation in about 30 minutes. For surgical procedures lasting less than one hour, 2.2 mg/kg of xylazine is recommended in cats and after 10 minutes, 11 mg/kg of ketamine is administered.
Contraindications and Limitations of Use
- In most cats and occasionally in the dog, emesis occurs within 3 – 5 minutes of xylazine administration.
- Avoid the intra-arterial route.
- Do not administer in animals receiving epinephrine or having ventricular arrhythmias.
- Use with caution in animals with pre-existing cardiac dysfunction, hypotension or shock, respiratory dysfunction, severe renal or hepatic failure.
- Do not administer in very debilitated animals.
- In dogs bradycardia, heart block and acute arterial hypotension can occur, as well as apparent tympanism by aerophagy, (especially in Basset Hound, Great Dane and Irish Setter)
- Do not administer in ruminants that are dehydrated or with obstruction of the urinary tract, since in this species the drug causes a marked polyuria.
- The analgesia produced by xylazine alone is insufficient to perform an endotracheal intubation before the administration of an inhalation anaesthetic.
- Because it can cause premature delivery, do not use in the last trimester of pregnancy.
- The use of xylazine is not recommended in therapeutics in conjunction with neuroleptics or tranquilizers. In ruminants it can cause salivation, ruminal atony, tympanism and regurgitation, hypothermia, diarrhea and bradycardia.
- Animals should be handled carefully after administration of the drug. A false sense of security may cause an accident to personnel as the animals may respond with kicks or other reactions in a defensive manner.
- The patient should be monitored and kept in a warm, dark place, protected from noise and environmental disturbances, during recovery.
- It is suggested to premedicate with atropine before the use of xylazine.
- The doses and warnings suggested in all cases are to be considered by the acting veterinarian.
- Verify that the inviolability system of the product and its storage conditions prior to use are adequate.
- Xylazine is considered to be an agent with a wide therapeutic margin. When administered in large doses and quickly can occur respiratory depression, arrhythmias, tremors and hypotension. In these cases, assisted mechanical ventilation is preferable to analeptic ventilation.
- Yohimbine Vet Richmond has an antagonistic effect, and is used as an antidote in cases of overdose.
Do not use the meat from the animals for human consumption or industrialization until at least 5 days after the last treatment.
Do not use for human consumption or industrialization, milk from animals until at least 72 hours after the last treatment.
Keep the product between 15 and 30 °C, away from light and in a dry and hygienic place.
Do not swallow.
Keep out of reach of children and pets.
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Where we are
Fragata Heroína 4988 (B1615ICH)
Grand Bourg, Buenos Aires, Argentina.