TRADE MARK OF RICHMOND VETERINARIA S.A.
FOR VETERINARY USE ONLY
Ketonal 100. General dissociative anaesthetic, for use in companion and farm animals. Ready to use sterile injectable solution.
Each 100 mL of solution contains:
ketamine hydrochloride 11.52 g (equivalent to 10 g ketamine base); excipients q.s.
Ketonal 100 (Ketamine base 100 mg/mL) is a versatile and secure general anaesthetic, specially indicated for emergency surgical interventions because it does not compromises the cardiorespiratory system of the animal, maintains the swallowing reflex and keeps upper airways clear. Is the anaesthetic of choice for caesarian section and other routine surgical interventions (cosmetic surgery, castrations, removal of skin tumors, sutures, etc.) because it has no fetal or uterine toxicity.
Ketonal 100 is indicated for use in all animal species, including non domestic animals. Ketamine can be used as sole agent or in combination with other anaesthetic agents capable of producing an ideal relaxation and analgesic plane when combined.
Recommended for use in bovine, ovine, swine, sport horses, dogs, cats, birds and exotic animals (including primates) of all breeds, sex and ages.
Route of administration: Parenteral. Intramuscular, intravenous bolus or infusion.
Cats: Previous to the administration of ketamine it is advisable to pre-medicate the cat with atropine for the prevention of salivation and other autonomous system reactions. Protect the eyes from the excessive dryness with an ophthalmic cream applied on the corneas.
Ketamine can be use for clinical maneuvers that require the immobilization of the patient (radiographs) and as an inductor for other general anaesthetic agents.
11 to 33 mg/kg intramuscular, Atropine 0,045 mg/kg intramuscular, applied prior to the ketamine.
33 mg/kg. Uses: mayor surgeries (ovariohysterectomy, caesarean section, laparotomy or orthopedic surgery). For these kind of surgeries the combination with inhalation agents is recommended.
22 mg/kg. Uses: minor surgeries (castration, nail clipping or immobilization).
11 mg/kg. Uses: short immobilization or induction to inhalation anaesthesia.
For a 20 mg/kg dose an action effect after 3 minutes of applied is described, with a loss of reflexes for the following 10 minutes, the peak action comes after 20 minutes, giving an anaesthetic effect for another 30 minutes, with reflex recovery after 60 minutes. The animal is not totally recovered until 5 hours have passed from the administration of the drug.
It can be combined with Sodium Thiopental (4.4 to 8.8 mg/kg I.V.), with Acepromacine (0.2 mg/ kg), with Nalbufine (1 to 2 mg/kg), with Midazolam (1 to 2 mg/kg), with Butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg) achieving optimal relaxation and analgesia.
Xylazine is recommended to obtain muscle relaxation prior to the administration of ketamine. A 0.55 to 1.1 mg/kg dose is suggested (it can be combined with atropine), 10 to 20 minutes prior to the administration of ketamine. With these combinations if the chosen route is intravenous the suggested dose cited on examples can be reduced by 50%.
In the routine clinic it is suggested to combine as premedication: Atropine 0.045 mg/kg and acepromacine 0.055 mg/kg intramuscularly, 10 to 15 minutes prior to the administration of ketamine 11 to 22 mg/kg intramuscularly.
Premedication: Atropine 0.045 mg/kg intramuscularly continued by the administration of xylazine 0.55 mg/kg intramuscularly and 10 to 15 minutes later ketamine 22 mg/kg intravenously. This combination can be used to immobilize or in short term or simple surgeries.
Intravenous: 1 to 5 mg/kg
Intramuscular: 5 to 15 mg/kg
Intramuscular: 10 a 20 mg/kg
Intramuscular: 20 to 40 mg/kg
Sheep and swine:
Intramuscular or intravenous: 15 to 20 mg/kg.
Premedication: Atropine sulfate 0.2 mg/kg intramuscularly 15 minutes before, it can be combined with acepromacine 0.055 mg/kg. To prolong the anaesthetic effect (if necessary) 2.2 to 6.6 mg/kg of ketamine intramuscularly or intravenously can be administered.
The use of a combination of xylazine 1 mg/kg with ketamine 10 mg/kg intravenously is recommended for swine of 50 to 60 kg of body weight.
For mayor and minor surgical procedure: 2 mg/kg of body weight intravenously. Palpebral, salivary and anal reflexes are kept. Timpanism and regurgitation will not happen. The animal can be fastened 24 hours prior to the procedure. No premedication is needed. Bovine recover standing position 30 minutes after the administration of the anaesthetic.
A combination of ketamine, guaiacol glyceryl ether and xilazine can be applied to obtain an optimal general anaesthesia. Xylazine 2.2 mg/kg intramuscularly 20 minutes before the induction with guaiacol glyceryl ether is administered, and once the decubitus is obtained ketamine 1.7 mg/kg intravenously is applied.
A ketamine 2.2 dose at the same time or followed by the administration of xylazine 1.1 mg/kg intravenously (four minutes before the ketamine). This combination will provide short analgesia and anaesthesia, endotracheal intubation can be applied.
Contraindications and limitations of use.
With the indicated doses Ketamine does not produce significant changes in body temperature, but it must be kept in mind that if the dose is increased it can cause hypothermia that can be controlled by an external heat source. Temperature is related with muscular tone. Low dose will keep muscular tone slightly increased thus body temperature can be maintained, if dose is increased in order to obtain less muscle tone, hypothermia must be controlled.
Ketamine is a poor muscle relaxant. Its use as a sole agent is not recommended for surgeries that require muscle relaxation.
Salivation is maintained, thus atropine premedication is advised prior to the use of ketamine. (See dosage).
Protect the animal’s pupils with ophthalmic cream in order to avoid excessive dryness.
Do not use in animals with renal or hepatic insufficiency because this pathologies can increase drug circulating periods which can eventually lead to the death of the patient.
Do not use in animals who have experienced prior hypersensitivity reactions to the drug. It may be harmful in animals with significant hypertension, heart failure or arterial aneurysms.
During the recovery period, the animal must be controlled and kept on a warm dark place, protected from noises and other disturbances.
Respiratory depression may occur after administration of a high ketamine dose, and cases of severe heart failure have been reported even when the drug was administered alone and without high dose pre medication.
6 hour solid food fasting is recommended, although this can be ignored when used for emergencies.
Caution must be implemented regarding post surgical hemorrhage as ketamine increases blood pressure.
Adverse reactions are most common associated when ketamine is administrated in doses higher than recommended, and these are: Vomits, howls, prolonged and erratic recovery periods, dyspnoea, spastic movements, convulsions, involuntary muscular contractions, hypertonicity, opisthotonos and cardiac arrest.
Check the integrity of the security seals and storage conditions prior to administration as well as expiration date expressed on the label.
The doses and frequency can be modified according to professional criteria.
Store on a dry clean place, avoid direct sunlight. Keep between 15 and 30 ºC
Keep away from the reach of children and domestic animals.
Always consult your veterinarian.
Under veterinary prescription only
FOR ANIMAL TREATMENT ONLY.
Do not slaughter for human consumption or industrialization until 5 days after the last administration.
Milk should not be destined for human consumption or industrialization until 72 hours from the last administration.
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Grand Bourg, Buenos Aires, Argentina.